IPTV Internet Protocol television

Internet Protocol television (IPTV) is the transmission of television content via Internet Protocol (IP) networks. This differs from the more traditional television channels like terrestrial, satellite as well as television cable TV formats. Contrary to download media sources, IPTV allows streaming of media constantly. In turn, the client media player will start playing the media (such as a television channel) in a matter of minutes. This is referred to by the term streaming media. While IPTV makes use of the Internet protocol, it isn’t only restricted to television that streams through internet television. Internet ( Internet television). IPTV is widely used in telecommunications networks that are subscriber-based and offer high-speed access channels that are inserted into the customer premises through television set-top box as well as other equipment that is installed in the customer’s premises. IPTV can also be utilized to deliver media across private and corporate networks. IPTV in the field of telecommunications is noted for its continuous regularisation and standardisation processes (e.g., European Telecommunications Standards Institute). IPTV services can be classified as live TV Live media and other live content, without or with the interactivity time shift from media e.g., catch-up TV (replays the same TV show that was aired just a few hours or days ago) and the start-over channel (replays the current TV show starting from the beginning) as well as video on demand (VOD) that involves viewing and browsing items from a catalog of media.


Historically, many different definitions of IPTV have appeared, including elementary streams[clarification needed] over IP networks, MPEG transport streams over IP networks and a number of proprietary systems. The official definition, which was that has been approved in the International Telecommunication Union focus group on IPTV (ITU-T FG IPTV) is: IPTV is defined as multimedia services such as television/video/audio/text/graphics/data delivered over IP-based networks managed to provide the required level of quality of service and experience, security, interactivity and reliability.[1] A different definition for IPTV that is related to the telecommunications industry is that of the Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions (ATIS) IPTV Exploratory Group in 2005: IPTV is the secure and reliable distribution to users of entertainment video and other related services. These may include, for instance, Live TV, Video On Demand (VOD) and Interactive TV (iTV). The services are provided over an access-agnostic and packet switched network which uses IP as the IP protocol to transfer the video, audio as well as control signal. Contrary to the video streaming on the public Internet or via the public Internet, with IPTV deployments, security and performance is tightly controlled to provide a better entertainment experience. This creates an enticing commercial environment that is appealing to content producers as well as advertisers and consumers.


In the early 1990s, it wasn’t considered possible that a TV program could be squeezed within the telecommunications bandwidth of a telephone cable to deliver an online video-on demand (VOD) TV service with acceptable quality because the bandwidth required for the TV signal that was digital measured approximately 200 Mbit/s. That’s two times more than what you could get from a voice signal transmitted over a telephone wire. VOD-based services only became possible by two significant technological advances that were motion-compensated DCT video compression as well as Asymmetric digital subscriber lines (ADSL) information transmission.[3 Motion-compensated DCT algorithms for video coding standardization include the H.26x formats that were introduced from 1988 along with the MPEG formats that were introduced from 1991 onwards.[4][5 Motion-compensated DCT video compression dramatically decreased the bandwidth required to transmit the television signal, but simultaneously ADSL enhanced the bandwidth of data that could be transmitted via a telephone cable. ADSL improved the bandwidth of the telephone line from 100 kbit/s to 2 Mbps, and DCT compression decreased the bandwidth required for the digital television signal from around 200 Mbit/s, down to around 2 Mbit/s. Combining DCT and ADSL technology made it possible to effectively create VOD services with around 2 Mbit/s in the early 1990s. [3] The term IPTV first appeared in 1995 with the founding of Precept Software by Judith Estrin and Bill Carrico. Precept invented an Internet video service called IP/TV. IP/TV is an Mbone compatible Windows and Unix-based program that broadcast single and multi-source video and audio traffic in a range of the DVD quality to low, using unicast as well as IP multicast real-time transport protocol (RTP) and the Real-time control protocol (RTCP). The software was written by Steve Casner, Karl Auerbach as well as Cha Chee Kuan. Precept was purchased from Cisco Systems on the 28th of October, the year 1998. [6] Cisco still holds its IP/TV brand. The Telecommunications Company US West (later Qwest) introduced an IPTV service dubbed TeleChoice in Phoenix, Arizona in 1998 employing VDSL technology. It was an early company within the United States to provide digital television via telephone lines.[7][8 The service was discontinued in 2008.[9[9 Internet broadcaster AudioNet launched the first live streaming webcasts featuring content from WFAA TV in January 1998. The same was followed by KCTU-LP on January 10, 1998.[10[10 Kingston Communications, an operator of regional telecommunications in the UK introduced Kingston Interactive Television (KIT) the IPTV service via Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) service, in the month of September. The company added a second VOD services in October 2001 along with Yes TV, a VOD content provider. Kingston was among the first companies to launch IPTV as well as IP VOD on ADSL in the form of commercial services. The service was the basis for modifications in UK Government regulations and policy regarding IPTV. In 2006 KIT’s service was discontinued. KIT service was canceled and subscribers had declined from the peak of 10,000 to 4000. [11] [1212 The year 1999 was the first time NBTel (now called Bell Aliant) was the first commercial company to offer Internet protocol television using DSL in Canada [13] utilizing the Alcatel 7350 DSLAM, as well as middleware developed through iMagic TV (owned by NBTel’s parent Bruncor[14[14, 15]). The service was advertised under the name VibeVision for New Brunswick, and was later extended to Nova Scotia in the beginning of 2000 [15in the year 2000 following the creation by the company Aliant. iMagic TV was later sold to Alcatel. 16 The year 2002 was the time Sasktel is the 2nd company in Canada to commercially implement IPTV over DSL by using the Lucent Stinger DSL platform. 17 The year 2005 was the first time SureWest Communications was the first North American company to offer high-definition television (HDTV) channels via the InternetTV platform. [18] The year 2005 was the time that Bredbandsbolaget introduced their IPTV service, which was the very first provider of services within Sweden. In January 2009, they’re not the most popular provider anymore. TeliaSonera has launched the service a little later, is a bigger customer. [19] The year 2007 was the first time TPG introduced the IPTV services in Australia following a limited beta. [20] [2121 In 2010 iiNet and Telstra have launched IPTV services that were bundled with Internet plans. [22] in 2008 Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited (PTCL) began offering IPTV with the name PTCL Smart TV in Pakistan. The service is accessible in 150 cities across the country and offers the live broadcast of 140 channels. [citation needed] In 2010 CenturyLink following the acquisition of Qwest and Embarq in 2009, purchasing the Embarq (2009) in 2009 and Qwest (2010) and Qwest (2010) – entered the five U.S. markets with an IPTV service dubbed Prism. [23] This followed a an initial test of marketing success in Florida. Later in 2010, Bell Canada (a major division, if not the largest division of BCE) announced that it will begin providing commercial and residential consumers within Montreal, Quebec and Toronto, Ontario IPTV over a range of modalities such as fibre to the house as well as fibre to the node, and DSL. This kind of IPTV will be integrated with other services and be marketed as “Bell Fibe”,” offering Canadian clients with all the services they need from local analog trunk connections (POTS) as well as DSL and fiber Internet to TV through IPTV.[2424 Bell also announced in the thirteenth of September (2010) announcement that it will begin to offer the fiber optical Ethernet into homes of Montreal as well as Toronto. Bell continues to add fiber optic Ethernet to homes (fibre to the home) throughout Ontario as well as Quebec, Bell Canada’s two biggest customer territories. Bell was extremely successful with the introduction to customers of their Bell Fibe product offering. Many customers from Ontario and Quebec changed from the old ( coaxial) cable providers and switched to the Bell Fibe product due to Bell’s advertising around IPTV and their wireless at-home PVR service. Bell’s wireless PVR will allow customers to set up the TV wherever they want in the event that there was an outlet for power. Bell Fibe TV commercials would feature young families watching television sitting on their sofas with big 70+-inch LCDs, and the Bell Fibe wireless PVR. [2525 In Brazil from at most the year 2012 Vivo has been providing this services Vivo TV Fibra in 200plus cities with coverage for FTTH (4Q 2020 date) . Since at most 2018, Oi has also been providing IPTV through its FTTH service “Oi Fibra”. Additionally, a number of local FTTH providers also provide IPTV in addition to FTTH internet services. In the year 2016, Korean Central Television (KCTV) launched a TV set-top boxes named Manbang that is believed to be offering video-on demand service within North Korea via internet protocol TV (IPTV). Manbang lets viewers enjoy five channels on TV in real-time and also find information about the political views of Juche’s supreme leader as well as the Juche philosophy, as well as read articles published by state-run news agencies.



It is estimated that the global IPTV market was predicted to increase from 28 million users at US$12 billion from 2009, to an estimated 83 million subscribers and 38 billion dollars in 2013. The market is expected to grow by 83 million and US$38 billion in 2013. Needs updatingUpdate Europe as well as Asia are the top two markets in terms of total amount of subscribers. In terms of revenues from service, Europe and North America are the largest contributors to worldwide revenue due to the lower average user revenue (ARPU) within China and India and the fastest growing (and eventually, one of the largest regions) market is Asia. [26] Services have also been launched also in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Pakistan, Canada, Croatia, Lithuania, Moldova, Montenegro, Morocco,[27] North Macedonia, Poland, Mongolia, Romania, Serbia Slovenia,[28] the Netherlandsin Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Pakistan, the Netherlands, [29 Georgia, Greece, Denmark, Finland, Estonia, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, [30][31The Netherlands, Georgia, Finland, Denmark, Norway Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Latvia, Turkey, Colombia, Chile and Uzbekistan.[32 In the United Kingdom launched IPTV early and, after a slower initial growth rate, in February 2009, BT declared that they had surpassed 398,000 users of the BT Vision service.[33The company Claro has also launched its own IPTV service, dubbed “Claro TV”. The service is available across a number of countries in which Claro operates, including Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua. IPTV is only getting started to expand throughout Central as well as Eastern Europe and Latin America and is currently expanding within South Asian countries such as Sri Lanka, Nepal Pakistan and India.[34However, significant plans are in place for countries like Russia. Kazakhstan has introduced [35it’s own IPTV services. the country’s own IPTV service through the Kazakhtelecom JSC Kazakhtelecom JSC [36and content integrator Alacast and the content integrater Alacast in the “iD TV” brand in the two largest cities Astana and Almaty in 2009 and will be made available to all of the country starting in 2010. The country launched Needs updatingIt is required to update Australian ISP iiNet introduced the country’s first IPTV using Fetch television. [37] The state of India IPTV was introduced in India by MTNL, BSNL and Jio in New Delhi, Mumbai and Punjab. is another name for APSFL. is a different provider of IPTV within the State of Andhra Pradesh. It was in Nepal IPTV was initially launched by the company NEW IT VENTURE CORPORATION named Net TV Nepal, the service is accessible via its application, web app, and set-top boxes that are provided by local ISPs. Another IPTV service was introduced through Nepal Telecom known as WOW Time in 2016, which is accessible via its application. The service was launched in Sri Lanka, IPTV was introduced through Sri Lanka Telecom (operated by SLT VisionCom) in 2008 as part of the branding PEO TV. The service is accessible throughout the nation. Dialog TV is accessible through the service since. The service is available in Pakistan IPTV was introduced through company PTCL in 2008 with the name the PTCL Smart Television. The service is accessible in more than 150 cities across the nation. [citation needed] in the Philippines, PLDT offers Cignal IPTV services as an option for specific ADSL or fiber optic plans.[38][39[39 Within Malaysia There are several firms have attempted in the past to offer IPTV services in the past since 2005. The failed Paid-TV company MiTV tried to launch an IPTV-over-UHF system, however, the service was unable to gain traction. HyppTV was designed to be an IPTV-based device, but it’s this is not IPTV since it doesn’t offer a set-top box, and requires viewers to watch channels via computers. The only IPTV providers that are available in Malaysia at present include Fine TV and DETV. In the second quarter of 2010 Telekom Malaysia launched IPTV services via its broadband to your internet service unifi in certain regions. In April of 2010, Astro began testing IPTV services through TIME dotcom Berhad’s super-fast broadband to your home optical fiber network. In December of 2010, Astro began testing with high-rise condominiums in Mont Kiara. Mont Kiara area. In April of 2011, Astro commercially began its IPTV services under the tagline “The Only Line You’ll Need” A triple play offering that was launched in combination and TIME dotCom Berhad that provides all Astro programming through IPTV as well as voice phone services and broadband Internet access via the same fiber optic connection to the customer’s home. In the year 2020, Astro launched “Plug-and-Play” which makes use of Unicast technology to stream television. Then, in Turkey, TTNET introduced IPTV with the brand name IPtivibu in the year 2010. It was initially available in pilot areas within Istanbul, Izmir and Ankara. Istanbul, Izmir and Ankara. In the year 2011, IPTV service is launched as a commercial service on a large scale and is available throughout the country under the brand name “Tivibu Tivibu EV”. [40] [4141 Superonline is planning to offer IPTV under a different name “WebTV” in 2011. Turk Telekom began building fiber optic infrastructure to support IPTV in the last quarter of 2007.

Corporate and commercial

The use of IPTV has been widespread since 2002 reference requiredto broadcast the television channel as well as audio-visual (AV) media to commercial and business websites, be it via live channels on TV or as Video On Demand (VOD). Examples of of commercial users are airports and schools, offices hotels, and sports stadiums to mention only a handful of. Hotels television networks are television systems that are in-suite content that is shown inside hotel rooms hotels, as well as in the hospitality sector to provide entertainment in rooms in hospitals assisted living facilities, senior care as well as nursing facilities. The services can be offered for complimentary for guests or charged, depending on the type of service offered and the hotel chain’s policies. In general, the services are managed Remote Control.



An IPTV head-end can be described as an area that live TV channels and other AV source data is encoded and encrypted and distributed in IP Multicast stream. In addition the video on demand (VOD) platform stores on-demand video content and provides the content as IP unicast streams whenever a user wants these. In some cases VOD is a VOD platform is a part of the IPTV head-end. Interactive portals allow users to navigate through various IPTV services, like the VOD catalog. Delivery networks are packet-switched system that transmits IP-based packets which include the unicast as well as multicast streaming. Endpoints are devices which can be used to request for, decode and then deliver IPTV streams for the viewer. These include mobile devices, computers and television set-top units. When a homeowner is IPTV user’s residence the TV gateway will be the device which disconnects the access connection to the provider network. The TV set-top boxes for the user is a piece of equipment at the endpoint which decodes TV and VOD channels to display on the television screen.

The architecture of the video server network

Based on the network architecture that the provider of service There are two primary kinds of video server architectures that are suitable in IPTV deployment Centralised as well as distributed. Centralised architecture is an extremely simple and straightforward solution to manage. Since the media content is all stored on central servers, it doesn’t require a complete distribution system for content. Centralised architectures are generally suitable for networks that provide the smallest VOD services, and has sufficient connectivity to the edge and core, or is a reliable Content Delivery Network (CDN). A distributed structure has benefits in bandwidth usage and features for managing the system that are vital to managing the larger server network. Distributed architecture requires smart and advanced technology for distribution of content to ensure the efficient delivery of multimedia content on the network of the service provider. [42]

Home networks for IPTV residential

In many instances it is it is the home gateway which connects with an Internet connection network is not near the IPTV set-top box. This situation becomes more common when service providers start to offer packages of service that include more than one set-top box per subscriber. Technologies for networking that make use of the existing household wiring (such like power lines telephone lines, coaxial cables) or wireless hardware have been gaining popularity as solutions to this issue however, the fragmentation of the market for wired home networking has hindered the growth of the market. [43] [4444 As of December 28, 2008 ITU T approved the Recommendation G.hn (also known as G.9960), which is a next-generation home network standard that defines the common PHY/MAC which can be used over any wiring in the home (power lines telephone lines, coaxial cables). [45] Groups like groups like Multimedia over Coax Alliance, HomePlug Powerline Alliance, Home Phoneline Networking Alliance as well as Quasar Alliance (Plastic optical Fibre)[46Each of them promotes their own technology.

Telecomms IMS architecture

There is an increasing standardisation effort focusing on using the 3GPP IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) as an infrastructure for supporting IPTV-based services on telecommunications carrier networks. In both cases, ITU-T as well as ETSI are currently working on “IMS-based IPTV” standards (see e.g. ETSI TS 182 027[47]). The carriers will have the ability provide both voice as well as IPTV services using the same infrastructure, and the introduction of services that combine traditional TV features with telephone features (e.g. caller ID displayed on the screen of your TV) will be simple. [48]


IPTV allows simultaneously streaming live television and also recorded video-on-demand. Playback requires an device connected to an IP fixed or wireless network, in the form of an individual personal computer or smartphone, touch screen tablet gaming console, connected TV or set-top boxes. Content is compressed using video as well as audio codescs and then encoded in MPEG transport streams and real-time transport protocol and other types of packets. Multicasting over IP allows real-time data that can be transmitted to multiple receivers by using one multicast group address. In the case of standards-based IPTV devices, the principal protocol used is:

Service-provider-based streaming:

IGMP for registering to live multicast streams (TV channel) and to switch between one live multicast stream into another (TV channel switch). IP multicast works in the LANs (including VLANs) as well as across WANs too. The use of IP multicast is not limited to WANs. Need to cite IP multicast is typically connected to the network’s core via protocol independent multicast (PIM) which sets the correct broadcasting of streams (TV channels) from the source to customers who wish to access them, reusing the received packets as required. On-demand content utilizes an unicast connection that has been negotiated. Real-time Transportation Protocol (RTP) over User Datagram Protocol (UDP) or the less cost H.222 transport stream over Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) are the most commonly most popular methods for encryption. Web-based unicast live only or VOD-based streaming Adobe Flash Player prefers RTMP over TCP by allowing the ability to set up and control it via AMF or XML or JSON transactions. Apple iOS utilizes the HLS adaptable bitrate stream through the internet with control and setup through the embedded M3U playlist file. Microsoft Silverlight uses smooth streaming (adaptive bitrate streaming) over HTTP. Multicast streaming on the Web, as well as Unicast streaming VOD The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) suggests RTP using UDP as well as TCP transports, with the ability to control and setup with the use of RTSP via TCP. Televisions that are connected, game consoles, set-top boxes and personal video recorders for networks: Local network content utilizes the UPnP network for unicast over HTTP via TCP or live multicast RTP over UDP. Web-based content can be accessed via the use of either Web plug-ins, or a TV broadcasting application that employs an middleware language like MHEG-5 which initiates an event like the loading of an online Web browser by using a Adobe Flash Player plug-in. Local IPTV as utilized by companies to provide audio-visual distribution of AV on their networks is generally built around a combination of:

Equipment for reception of conventional TV and IPTV encoders

Television gateways which receive streams of live Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) MPEG transport streams (channels) from satellite dishes, terrestrial aerials or cable feeds and transform these streams into IP stream

Via satellite

While IPTV and traditional satellite television distribution are seen as technology that complement each other but they will become more common as the form of hybrid IPTV networks. IPTV is generally neutral to the medium of transmission and IP traffic is already transported by satellites to support Internet backbone trunking as well as corporations’ VSAT networks. [49] A twisted pair of copper cable that constitutes the final mile of the broadband and telephone networks in many countries isn’t capable of providing a substantial percentage of the population the IPTV service that can compete with existing satellite or terrestrial television distribution. To be a successful TV channel, an at a speed of 20 Mbit/s is expected to be needed however, it is not available to the majority of prospective clients. [50] The rising popularity of high definition television has increased the requirements for connection speeds or restricts IPTV service quality and availability even more. Satellites can be capable of delivering more than of 100 Gbit/s using multi-spot beam technologies. This makes satellites an obvious emerging technology that can be used to build IPTV networks. Satellite distribution is possible within an IPTV network in a variety of ways. The easiest to implement is an IPTV-based direct-to-home (DTH) structure where hybrid DVB broadband sets-top box that are installed in homes of subscribers integrate satellite as well as IP reception to provide more bandwidth and return channels. In a similar system, several live TV channels could be multicast by satellites and augmented by streaming video on demand stored over broadband connectivity. arqiva’s Satellite Media Solutions Division recommends “IPTV is best when it’s when it is a hybrid format. For instance, you could make use of broadband for certain content, and satellite to receive others like streaming channels”. [51]

Hybrid IPTV

Hybrid IPTV is the mix of broadcast TV and the delivery of video via or managed IP networks or via the public Internet. It is becoming more popular in both the pay and consumer TV market. [52] [5353 [54[54] The rise of Hybrid IPTV has been fueled by two primary aspects. Since the advent of video aggregation websites online such as YouTube as well as Vimeo during the middle of 2000s and beyond, traditional pay-TV operators have faced ever-increasing pressure to provide their customers with the ability to watch Internet-based videos on their TVs. However specialists in IP-based services are looking at ways to provide analog as well as digital terrestrial services to their businesses without adding costs or complications to their transmission procedures. Bandwidth is a significant resource for operators, which is why they have been looking for other ways to offer these services without having to invest in new infrastructures for their networks. A hybrid set-top can allow content from various sources, such as satellite, terrestrial broadcasts, satellite and cable and satellite, to be combined with videos streaming via the Internet through an Ethernet connection that is built into the device. This allows viewers of television to enjoy a wider selection of television sets, and without the need to have a separate set-top box for every service. These hybrid IPTV set-top boxes allow users to access an array of interactive services like VOD and television catch-up as well as Internet applications like video phone and surveillance, gaming and shopping and e-government and more, all through using a TV set. From an paying-TV operator’s viewpoint an hybrid IPTV set-top box offers them more flexibility over the long term to launch new applications and services at the time that consumers need typically without the requirement to upgrade equipment or an engineer to visit and reconfigure or replace the device. This helps reduce the costs of launching new services as well as speeds the speed of market and reduces disruption for customers. [55] It was the Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV (HbbTV) group of companies from the industry established an unofficial European standards for set-top box for viewing broadcast as well as broadband TV as well as multimedia apps that use a one user interface.[56These developments resulted in the creation of Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV set-top boxes, which included broadcast tuners and an Internet connection, usually through the Ethernet port. The first commercially-available Hybrid IPTV setup-top device designed through Advanced Digital Broadcast, a manufacturer of digital TV hardware and software in 2005. The platform was designed specifically for Spanish pay-TV operator Telefonica, [57[57 and is a part of the Movistar TV service, launched for subscribers towards the end of 2005. Another option is an alternative approach is the IPTV alternative to the Headend within the Sky Cable TV system. In this case, several TV channels are broadcast through satellite to either the ISP (or IPTV providers) points of presence (POP) to enable IP-encapsulated distribution to subscribers according to the requirements of every subscriber. This provides a wide range of channels to viewers without overloading the Internet for the POP and allows the IPTV option to be provided to remote operators or smaller companies that are not connected to a the high-speed terrestrial WAN connection. One example is a system which combines satellite distribution and fibre through and SES New Skies satellite with 95 channels for Latin America and the Caribbean and the Caribbean, which is operated via IPTV Americas. [58][58] Needs an to be updatedNeeds updating


It is an Internet protocol-based platform has a number of advantages, such as the possibility of integrating television with other IP-based solutions such as high-speed Internet access as well as VoIP. An IP switched network lets you access much more content and functions. In a typical satellite or TV network that uses streaming video technologies, all content is continuously flowing through to every customer, and the consumer changes the content via the television set. The consumer can choose from any of the options that the cable, telecomms or satellite companies can put into the pipeline that flows to the home. The switched IP network operates differently. Content stays within the network, but only the content that the user chooses is delivered to the home of the user. This allows bandwidth to be freed up, and also allows the customer to be not limited by the pipe’s size to their home.


A platform based on IP also provides an array of possibilities to make TV experience more interactive and personal. The service provider could include, for instance, an interactive program guide which allows viewers to look up content using the title or actor’s name, or picture-in-picture feature that permits viewers to navigate channels without having to leave the program they’re watching. Viewers could be able check out the stats of a player while watching a sporting event or adjust the angle of the camera. They may also be able to access pictures or music via their computer on their TV, or use a wireless phone to set up a recording of their preferred show or alter the parental controls so that their child is able to watch a documentary as an assignment at school, even if you’re at work. A feedback channel from the user towards the service provider necessary for interactivity. Terrestrial, satellite and certain cable TV networks don’t have feedback channels, and consequently aren’t able to permit interactivity. However, interactivity with these networks is possible through merging TV networks with data networks like internet Internet and a mobile communications network.

Video on demand

IPTV technology is employed to provide the streaming of video (VOD), [59the technology which allows customers to browse a website’s programme or film catalog, to view trailers, and then choose a programme. The playback of the selection begins almost immediately on the television or computer. Technically speaking, when the user chooses the streaming service the point-to-point unicast connection is established between the decoder of the customer (set-top box or personal computer) and the streaming server. The signals for function in trick mode function (pause and slow-motion, rewind/wind etc.).) could be sent via, for instance, RTSP. In order to prevent pirated content, VOD content is generally secured as well as the digital rights management can be used. The film you choose by a customer, for instance, could be played for a period of up to 24 hours following the payment, and after that it will be unavailable.

IPTV-based services that are converged

Another benefit is the potential to integrate and converge. This can be enhanced by making use of IMS-based solutions. [60] Converged services imply the interplay of existing services seamlessly to provide new value-added service. For instance, on-screen calling ID and the ability to display caller IDs on TV and the capability to take care of calls (send it to voicemail, etc.). IP-based services allow users at any time and from anywhere access to video content on their TVs, computers, or mobile devices, as well as to connect content and services to link them. In institutions and businesses, IPTV eliminates the need to maintain a parallel infrastructure for live and archived video services.


IPTV is prone to delays and loss of packets. A IPTV channel must meet the minimum bandwidth requirement. Certain systems can adapt to a lower bandwidth, thereby reducing the quality of picture. Though a few countries have high-speed broadband enabled people, [a] in many other countries, older networks struggle to deliver 3 to 5 Mbit/s (61)(61) requires updating] and therefore simultaneous usage of IPTV as well as VOIP and Internet access might not be feasible. The last mile delivery of IPTV generally has a bandwidth limit that can only allow a limited number of simultaneous TV channels generally between one and three – to be streamed. [62]


The delay in the network caused by satellite Internet access satellite Internet access is frequently cited as the reason why satellites aren’t able to be employed to support IPTV. However, in reality delay isn’t an issue for IPTV because it’s a service that doesn’t require real-time transmission like it does with videoconferencing or telephony. It is the slowness of the response to requests to switch channels display an EPG and so on. that is most affecting the customers’ perception of the satisfaction with the service. Video transmission systems that exist in both digital and analog formats have already introduced certain delays that are quantifiable. The existing DVB television channels which can be simultaneously transmitted using both satellite and terrestrial transmissions have the identical 0.25-second delay between both services, but without any negative effect and it is not noticed by viewers.

Bandwidth requirements

Bandwidth capacity to simultaneously stream two HDTV streams and two SD streams, in addition to HSD and voice Digital video refers to a collection of digital pictures, referred to as frames, which are composed from the pixels or image elements. Three bytes are usually used to indicate the color of the image that is high quality. Movies have 24 frames every second. North America television uses approximately 30 frames per second whereas there is a Europe television frames rate of 25 frames/second. Every digital video has dimensions in width and height. SDTV has with 720 x 480 pixels. HDTV can use up to 1080×1080 pixels. To assess what bandwidth is required, it is necessary to define the dimensions of your IPTV service, for example, the numbers of SD and HD TV channels, the number of subscribers planned VOD, and the nPVR concurrency. Based on these factors, you can calculate the bandwidth required for every DSL line, both in the access network, and also in the central IP networks. [63]

Privacy consequences

Due to bandwidth limitations the IPTV channel is provided to the viewer in a single stream. The process of changing a channel involves requesting the head-end server for another broadcast stream similar to video on demand. [b] This allows the provider to precisely keep track of every show watched as well as the length of watching each viewer. Alongside the regulatory differences between cable and IPTV the tracking of viewers could be privacy risks according to some critics. [64] For IP multicasting, because the specific multicast channel (TV channel) requires a request prior to being able to view it and viewed, the same privacy issues are in place.


A few major telecoms companies are in the business including Accenture (Accenture Video Solution) Alcatel-Lucent (sometimes working with Movistar TV), Ericsson (notably since the acquisition of Tandberg Television), Huawei, NEC, PTCL Smart TV, Sri Lanka Telecom, Thomson, and ZTE and ZTE, among other IT firms, led by Microsoft. The Miami-based AlphaOTT and Tokyo-based The New Media Group, Malaysia-based Select-TV Oslo/Norway-based SnapTV as well as the California-based UTStarcom, Inc. Also, they provide end-to-end network infrastructure to support IPTV-based applications, and Hong Hong Kong-based BNS Ltd. provides turnkey open platform IPTV technology solutions. Other companies comprise Movistar TV and PCCW.. Google Fiber provides an IPTV service across a variety of US cities, which offers up to 1 gigabit of internet and over 290 channels, based on the package. It is available through the fiber optic network currently being constructed throughout Kansas City Kansas and Kansas City Missouri. A number among these IPTV solution providers participated in the annual Multiservice Switching Forum Interoperability 2008 (GMI) event that was hosted with the MultiService Forum (MSF) with five locations around the world from 20 to 30 October of 2008. Test equipment suppliers such as Netrounds, Codenomicon, Empirix, Ixia, Mu Dynamics as well as Spirent as well as solution providers like the ones listed above on one of the biggest IPTV testing grounds ever constructed.

Service bundling

For those who live in the country, IPTV is often provided as part of VOD and is sometimes bundled along with Internet products like Internet access as well as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) telecoms services. Commercial bundles of IPTV VoIP, VoIP, along with Internet access is often described in marketing as a three-play service. When all three are offered together with cellular this service can be described as the quadruple-play.


The cable TV industry has historically are regulated differently than the telecommunications operators. Because IPTV permits TV as well as VOD broadcast via through the Internet and vice versa, new regulations emerge. [65] Professor Eli M. Noam highlights in his book “TV or not TV Three Screens, One Regulation?” some of the major issues in regulation specific to the sector that is being displaced by technological advancements in this field. [66]


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